21 Star Flag
Years Flown: 1819-1820
US President: James Monroe (1817-1825)
Twenty-One Star Flag became official on July 4th 1819 after a star was added when Illinois became the 21st state on December 3rd 1818.
Politics and Government
December 10, 1817: Mississippi becomes the 20th state to join the Union.
September 19, 1819: The Adams-Onís Treaty is signed, establishing the boundary between the United States and Spanish Florida.
December 14, 1819: Alabama becomes the 22nd state to join the Union
March 6, 1820: The Missouri Compromise is enacted, admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state
March 15, 1820: Maine becomes the 23rd state to join the Union
Science, Technology and Medicine
August 25, 1819: The first steamship, the "SS Savannah," completes its transatlantic journey from the United States to England.
October 16, 1819: The first blood transfusion is performed in Massachusetts.
November 20, 1819: The first U.S. patent for a stethoscope is granted to René Laennec.
January 23, 1820: The first anatomical dissection in the United States using anesthesia is performed.
The first successful C-section performed in the United States is carried out in North Carolina (1821).
The American Sunday School Union is established to promote moral education among youth (1817).
August 17, 1819: The American Peace Society is founded in Massachusetts to promote international peace.
Arts, Culture and Literature
August 2, 1819: The Panic of 1819 begins, leading to an economic depression in the United States.
The U.S. Congress establishes the Library of Congress as a separate entity (1819).
"The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent." by Washington Irving is published, including the short story "Rip Van Winkle" (1819).
Washington Irving's "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" is published, contributing to American folklore and literature (1820
June 26, 1819: Abner Doubleday is born in Ballston Spa, NY.
The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle aims to restore European stability after the defeat of Napoleon (1818).
The United Kingdom and the United States sign the Rush-Bagot Treaty, limiting naval armament on the Great Lakes (1817).
The Argentine War of Independence against Spanish colonial rule continues (1810-1824).
January 27, 1820: Russian explorer Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen discovers Antarctica.
The Venus de Milo is discovered on the island of Milos in Greece (1820).
The Congress of Troppau asserts the principle of intervention in the affairs of sovereign states (1820).