21 Star Flag
Years Flown: 1819-1820
US President: James Monroe (1817-1825)
Twenty-One Star Flag became official on July 4th 1819 after a star was added when Illinois became the 21st state on December 3rd 1818.
Major Armed Conflicts:
The United States was not involved in any major armed conflicts during 1819. The First Seminole War between the United States and the Seminole Tribes in Florida had just ended in 1818 resulting in the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 between the US and Spain. Eventually Spain ceded Florida to the United States as a result of the treaty.
Other international wars and conflicts taking place during 1819 included:
Ndwandwe-Zulu War 1817-1819
Burmese Invasions of Assam 1817-1826
Caucasian War 1817-1864
Fifth Xhosa War 1818-1819
Chuguev Uprising 1819
National Historical Events
Panic of 1819
The Panic of 1819 was the first national financial crisis in the United States. The downturn was primarily triggered by the aftermath of the War of 1812 when trade growth suddenly halted. Unemployment rose, banks failed, mortgages started foreclosing and the investment in expanding to the west began to slow. A general collapse of American economy followed into 1821 and for the first time in American history, urban poverty became a real issue and demanded attention.
The Adams-Onis Treaty between the United States and Spain was signed in February of 1819. The treaty was negotiated by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and the Spanish Minister to the United States, Don Luis de Onis and established the boundary between Spanish territory and the United States as well as the acquisition of Florida.
McCulloch vs Maryland
Dartmouth College vs Woodward was a supreme court case that ruled that the state of New Hampshire, in their attempt to elect a new board of trustees for Dartmouth College, had violated the contract clause and also signaled for the need of separation of church and state.
Treaty of Saginaw
Alabama becomes a state
Regional Historical Events
1819 Kickapoo Withdraw
On January 18th, 1819: the second session of the First General Assembly convenes at Kaskaskia. It would adjourn on March 31st.
March 10th, 1819: A meeting of the Jefferson County "commissioners," Lewis Barker, Ambrose Maulding and James Richardson meet at the home of William Casey to select the location for the County Seat--the site of the future Mt. Vernon being on land then also owned by William Casey. As with many Illinois counties, the new seat of government would be located before the town was platted.