27 Star Flag
Flown from July 04, 1845 to July 03, 1846
US President: James Polk (1845-1849)
The Twenty-Seven Star Flag became official on July 4th, 1845 after a star was added when Florida became the 27th State on 03 March 1845. The 27 Star Flag was official for one year.
Politics and Government
December 29, 1845: Texas is admitted as the 28th state of the United States.
January 19, 1846: The United States House of Representatives votes to adopt the slogan "In God We Trust" on U.S. coins
February 19, 1846: The United States House of Representatives votes to establish the Smithsonian Institution.
April 15, 1846: The U.S. Congress declares war on Mexico, initiating the Mexican-American War.
April 25, 1846: The Thornton Affair along the Rio Grande during the Mexican-American War.
May 22, 1846: The first major battle of the Mexican-American War, the Battle of Palo Alto, takes place near Brownsville, Texas.
Science, Technology and Medicine
September 21, 1845: Dr. Crawford W. Long administers the first use of ether anesthesia for a surgical procedure in the United States.
December 6, 1845: The Phoenix Society is founded in New York City, promoting the use of ether for medical purposes.
August 10, 1846: The Smithsonian Institution is officially established, funded by a bequest from British scientist James Smithson.
August 31, 1846: Elias Howe patents the sewing machine.
February 2, 1846: The first public demonstration of anesthesia using nitrous oxide takes place in Hartford, Connecticut.
October 7, 1845: The United States Naval Academy opens in Annapolis, Maryland.
October 15, 1845: The academic fraternity Alpha Sigma Phi is founded at Yale University
Arts, Culture and Literature
July 4, 1845: Henry David Thoreau moves to a cabin near Walden Pond, inspiring his work "Walden."
July 6, 1845: Scottish author Robert Burns' manuscript for his poem "Auld Lang Syne" is purchased by the United States Library of Congress.
February 14, 1846: The "Donner Party" of pioneers departs Springfield, Illinois, for California, becoming stranded and resorting to cannibalism.
National and International Events
04 July 1845: Author Henry David Thoreau begins a 2-year experiment in simple living at Walden Pond near Concord, Massachusetts
July 1845: John L. O’Sullivan, the editor of the U.S. Magazine and Democratic Review, declares that the United States has a “manifest destiny” to occupy the North American continent. Manifest Destiny became the government policy for westward expansion creating American continental growth when on 02 December 1845, President Polk states to Congress that the Monroe Doctrine should be enforced and the US should expand.
19 July 1845: The Great New York City Fire starts in Lower Manhattan in what is known today as the Financial District and Wall Street. The fire destroyed 345 buildings estimated loss of which was between $145 million and $291 million in 2021 dollars. Four NY City Fire fighters and 26 civilians died in the blaze. As a result of this fire, building codes and fire fighting procedures were changed.
10 October 1845: The United States Naval Academy opens in Annapolis, MD. The first year there were 50 midshipmen students and 7 professors. It was originally named the Best School.
13 October 1845: Texas voters approve a proposed Constitution that would allow the State to enter the Union if approved by the US Congress.
27 December 1845: Anesthesia is used during childbirth for the first time in Georgia.
04 January 1846: Congress votes to stop sharing the Oregon Territory with the United Kingdom.
30 January 1846: The City of Milwaukee incorporates following the Milwaukee Bridge War of 1845 and the merging of Juneautown, Kilbourntown and Walker’s Point.
January 1846: President James K. Polk orders Gen. Zachary Taylor to march southward from Corpus Christi and occupy position near the Rio Grande River, 150 miles south of the Texas border as defined by the Spanish and Mexican authorities.
27 February 1845: The Liberty Bell is cracked while being rung in Philadelphia for George Washington’s Birthday.
04 May 1846: Michigan becomes the first state to abolish capital punishment.
13 May 1846: President Polk tells Congress that Mexico has “invaded our territory and shed American blood on American soil.” Congress then declares war on Mexico. The Mexican-American War lasts from 1846 to 1848.
15 June 1846: The United States accepts the 49th parallel as the boundary between the United States and Canada west of the Great Lakes.
20 June 1846: The first officially recorded game of baseball is played in Hoboken, New Jersey. This game used the modern rules developed by Alexander Cartwright.