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33 Star Flag

Years Flown: 1859 - 1861

US Presidents:

James Buchanan (1857-1861)

Abraham Lincoln (1861- 1865)

Thirty-Three Star Flag became official 4 July 1859 with the admission of Oregon into statehood 14 February 1859 as the thirty-third state.

Politics and Government


September 17, 1859: Joshua A. Norton declares himself Emperor of the United States in San Francisco.


October 18, 1859: John Brown leads a raid on the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, attempting to initiate a slave uprising.


February 27, 1860: Abraham Lincoln delivers his "Cooper Union Address" in New York City, outlining his anti-slavery position.


June 29, 1860: The first debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas takes place in Illinois.


November 6, 1860: Abraham Lincoln is elected as the 16th President of the United States.


December 20, 1860: South Carolina becomes the first state to secede from the United States, marking a key event leading to the American Civil War.


January 9, 1861: Mississippi becomes the second state to secede from the Union, leading to the American Civil War.


Science, Technology and Medicine


May August 3, 1859: The American Dental Association is founded in Niagara Falls, New York.


30, 1860: The United States signs the Comstock Lode mining contract in Nevada.


September 28, 1859: A powerful geomagnetic storm known as the Carrington Event causes widespread auroras and telegraph system disruptions.


April 3, 1860: The first successful Pony Express run from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, is completed.


June 18, 1861: The United States Sanitary Commission is established to provide medical and humanitarian aid during the Civil War, influencing the development of modern healthcare in the U.S.





MIT is founded on April 10, 1861, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a strong emphasis on science and engineering education.


Vassar College is founded in Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1861 as one of the first women's colleges in the United States.



International Events (July 4, 1859 - July 3, 1861)



May 21, 1860: Giuseppe Garibaldi arrives in Sicily to begin his campaign for Italian unification.

June 11, 1860: The Overland Telegraph Line connecting Australia to London is completed.


July 25, 1859: The United Kingdom and France formally annex the Papal States.


June 8, 1859: The first ascent of the Matterhorn in the Swiss Alps is completed.


September 28, 1859: Scottish author Walter Scott's novel "The Bride of Lammermoor" is published posthumously


November 17, 1859: The Suez Canal in Egypt is opened, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.


July 5, 1860: Gustave Courbet's controversial painting "L'Origine du monde" is displayed for the first time in France.


November 24, 1860: The Royal Swedish Geographical Society is founded in Stockholm.


September 4, 1860: The Prince of Wales opens the first tramway in Birkenhead, England.


October 16, 1860: The first British Open golf championship takes place at Prestwick Golf Club in Scotland.


July 1, 1860: Charles XV of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Norway in Oslo.


September 7, 1860: The steamship Lady Elgin sinks on Lake Michigan, resulting in a significant loss of life.


12. July 11, 1860: The final installment of Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations" is published in England.


June 4, 1860: The Italian nationalist movement captures the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in Italy.


January 21, 1861: Emperor Alexander II of Russia emancipates serfs, marking a significant social reform.


May 13, 1861: Queen Victoria issues the May Proclamation, which extends the neutrality of the United Kingdom during the American Civil War.

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