35 Star Flag
Years Flown: 1863 – 1867
Thirty-Five Star Flag became official 4 July 1863 with the admittance of West Virginia as the thirty-fifth state 20 June 1863.
Politics and Government
July 13, 1863: The New York City draft riots erupt as working-class citizens protest conscription during the American Civil War.
November 19, 1863: President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address during the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery.
May 13, 1864: Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia is established in 1864, becoming a sacred cultural site for honoring military veterans.
May 26, 1864: Montana is organized as a territory of the United States.
November 8, 1864: Abraham Lincoln is re-elected as the 16th President of the United States.
January 31, 1865: The United States Congress passes the 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery.
March 3, 1865: The Freedmen's Bureau is established to assist and protect newly freed slaves.
April 9, 1865: The American Civil War ends as Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union General Ulysses S. Grant.
April 15, 1865: John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C assassinates President Abraham Lincoln.
Science, Technology and Medicine
1865: The National Academy of Sciences is established in Washington, D.C.
April 14, 1865: The United States Secret Service is established to combat counterfeit currency.
March 3, 1865: Congress officially establishes the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, commonly known as the Freedmen's Bureau, to provide education, assistance, and support to formerly enslaved individuals in the South.
Arts, Culture and Literature
On June 19, 1865, Union General Gordon Granger announces in Galveston, Texas, that all enslaved people are free, giving rise to the annual Juneteenth celebration commemorating emancipation.
In 1864, the Brooklyn Atlantics and the New York Mutuals become two of the first baseball teams to openly pay their players, marking a step toward professional baseball.
International Events (July 4, 1863 - July 3, 1865)
August 28, 1864: The first Geneva Convention, which sets the foundation for international humanitarian law, is adopted.
August 6, 1864: The International Red Cross is founded in Geneva, Switzerland.