38 Star Flag
Years Flown: 1877 - 1890
The 38 Star Flag became official with the admission of Colorado (August 1st 1876) and was to last for 13 years.
Politics and Government
March 2, 1889: The United States Congress passes the Land Revision Act, creating national forests.
May 6, 1882: The Chinese Exclusion Act is signed into law, restricting immigration from China.
July 2, 1881: Charles J. Guiteau shoots President James A. Garfield. He succumbed to his wounds on September 19.
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 is passed, establishing the merit-based civil service system and reducing political patronage in government jobs.
On May 4, 1886, the Haymarket Riot in Chicago, Illinois, occurs during a labor protest, leading to the eventual trial and execution of several anarchist leaders.
September 4, 1886: The Apache warrior Geronimo surrenders, marking the end of major Native American resistance in the United States.
The Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 occurs when the Unassigned Lands, including Oklahoma City, are opened for settlement on April 22, 1889.
July 2, 1890: President Benjamin Harrison signs The Sherman Antitrust Act into law. The act aims to curb monopolistic practices and promote fair competition in business.
Science, Technology and Medicine
August 12, 1881: Henry W. Seeley patents the electric clothes iron in New York City.
October 12, 1881: Edward Leveaux receives the first U.S. patent for a ballpoint pen.
On June 16, 1884, the first roller coaster in America opens at Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, offering thrilling amusement for visitors.
November 1, 1884: surgeon Dr. Samuel D. Gross performs the first successful kidney transplant.
March 17, 1885: The patent for the first practical automobile is granted to Gottlieb Daimler.
October 28, 1886: The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France, is dedicated in New York Harbor.
March 12, 1888: A massive blizzard, known as the "Great Blizzard of 1888," hits the northeastern United States.
The Hatch Act of 1887 is passed, providing federal funding for agricultural research and the establishment of agricultural experiment stations at land-grant universities.
The Morrill Act of 1889, also known as the Second Morrill Act, provides additional funding for land-grant colleges and universities, expanding their educational opportunities.
Arts, Culture and Literature
May 17, 1881: Clara Barton in Washington, D.C founds The American Red Cross.
July 14, 1881: Billy the Kid is shot and killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner, New Mexico.
October 19, 1882: The infamous gunfight at the O.K. Corral takes place in Tombstone, Arizona.
October 22, 1883: The Metropolitan Opera House opens in New York City.
November 8, 1887: Doc Holliday, a legendary figure of the American Old West, dies in Glenwood Springs, Colorado.
June 7, 1889: The Great Seattle Fire destroys much of the city's business district.
The American Association (AA) is established on February 2, 1881, as a major professional baseball league, rivaling the National League.
International Events (July 4, 1877 - July 3, 1890)
September 18, 1879: The Blackpool Illuminations, one of the first electric light displays, are inaugurated in England.
January 17, 1893: The overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy takes place, leading to the annexation of Hawaii by the United States.
June 20, 1887: Victoria Terminus, a historic railway station in Mumbai, India, is opened.
August 31, 1888: Mary Ann Nichols becomes the first confirmed victim of the notorious serial killer Jack the Ripper in London.
April 30, 1879: The Tay Bridge Disaster occurs in Scotland, when a railway bridge collapses during a storm.
July 11, 1893: In Japan, Kokichi Mikimoto creates the first cultured pearl.
August 14, 1888: An audio recording of Arthur Sullivan's "The Lost Chord" is made by George Gouraud in London.
August 6, 1881: a bomb in Saint Petersburg assassinates Alexander II of Russia.