44 Star Flag
Years Flown: 1891 - 1896
The 44 Star Flag became official with was the admission of Wyoming (July 10, 1890) and was to last for 5 years.
Politics and Government
July 4, 1892: The Populist Party holds its first national convention in Omaha, Nebraska.
January 2, 1893: The U.S. Marines land in Honolulu to support the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy.
November 28, 1893 A massive fire destroys the 1874 Illinois State Capitol building in Springfield, leading to the design and construction of a new capitol.
April 13, 1894 The Illinois Supreme Court rules against the Illinois law that established a limit on working hours for women, influencing labor and gender debates.
July 5, 1894 President Grover Cleveland sends federal troops to Chicago to quell the violence during the Pullman Strike which, marking a significant moment in labor history.
June 4, 1896: Henry Ford completes the Ford Quadricycle, his first self-propelled vehicle.
The landmark Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson is decided on May 18, 1896, establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine, which affected the education of African Americans in the United States.
Science, Technology and Medicine
September 18, 1891: Herman Hollerith patents his punched card calculator, a precursor to the computer.
May 28, 1892, John Muir and others establish the Sierra Club in San Francisco, California, to promote the preservation of wilderness areas and environmental conservation.
December 7, 1892 Chicago's first elevated railway, known as the "L," opens, transforming urban transportation and influencing city development.
May 5, 1893: The "World's Columbian Exposition" opens in Chicago.
June 5, 1893: President Grover Cleveland pushes a button in Washington, D.C., to switch on electric lights at the Chicago World's Fair.
October 28, 1893: The World's Columbian Exposition closes in Chicago.
January 23, 1896: The first recorded automobile accident occurs in New York City.
August 12, 1892: students in public schools first recite The Pledge of Allegiance.
September 18, 1895, Booker T. Washington delivers his famous Atlanta Compromise speech, emphasizing vocational education and economic self-improvement for African Americans.
Arts, Culture and Literature
April 17, 1891 The Austin High School in Chicago establishes one of the first high school jazz bands, contributing to the city's rich musical heritage.
June 29, 1891: Streetcar strikes occur in various U.S. cities, leading to labor unrest.
January 1, 1892: Ellis Island opens as a U.S. immigration depot in New York Harbor.
October 11, 1893 The original Palmer House hotel in Chicago, designed by architect John M. Van Osdel, burns down and is rebuilt in just 13 months.
November 7, 1893: Colorado women are granted the right to vote
May 15, 1891: The American National Red Cross is chartered.
March 22, 1893, the first women's basketball game is played at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts, contributing to the growth of women's sports and education.
July 25, 1893 The "Bicycle Boom" peaks in popularity, with cycling clubs and enthusiasts forming across Illinois, leading to the development of cycling infrastructure.
October 1, 1895 The Chicago Times-Herald sponsors the first automobile race in the United States, a 54-mile contest from Chicago to Evanston and back.
International Events (July 4, 1891 - July 3, 1896)
October 28, 1891, a massive earthquake strikes Japan, known as the Great East Japan Earthquake, causing widespread destruction and loss of life.
The First Sino-Japanese War begins in 1894, pitting the Qing Dynasty of China against Imperial Japan, resulting in territorial changes and a shift in regional power.
The Dreyfus Affair, a political scandal in France, begins in 1894 when Captain Alfred Dreyfus is wrongly accused of espionage, leading to a highly publicized trial.
May 7, 1895: The Treaty of Shimonoseki is signed, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.
June 5, 1895: U.S. inventor Louis Lumière demonstrates his motion picture projector in Paris.
14. July 6, 1893: French scientist Marie Curie presents her research on radioactivity.
December 31, 1895: German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen announces his discovery of X-rays.
The Klondike Gold Rush begins in 1896 when gold is discovered in the Yukon region of Canada, attracting thousands of prospectors seeking their fortune.
French physicist Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity in uranium on February 26, 1896, paving the way for significant advancements in nuclear physics.
The first modern Olympic Games are held in Athens, Greece, from April 6 to April 15, 1896, reviving the ancient tradition of athletic competition.