45 Star Flag
Years Flown: 1896 - 1908
The 45 Star Flag became official due to the admission of Utah (January 4th, 1896). This was the official flag for 12 years.
Politics and Government
June 2, 1896: U.S. President Grover Cleveland submits the Annexation Treaty of Hawaii to the Senate.
January 17, 1899: The United States takes control of Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean.
June 14, 1900: Hawaii is annexed as a U.S. territory.
March 3, 1901: President William McKinley signs the Platt Amendment, giving the U.S. control over Cuba.
July 4, 1901: The 24th U.S. President, William McKinley, gives a speech promoting American industry and self-sufficiency.
Anarchist Leon Czolgosz assassinates President William McKinley on September 6, 1901, in Buffalo, New York. Theodore Roosevelt becomes the 26th President.
October 16, 1901: U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt invites Booker T. Washington to the White House, marking a significant step in civil rights.
November 16, 1907: Oklahoma becomes the 46th U.S. state.
Science, Technology and Medicine
March 14, 1900: U.S. Congress establishes the Gold Standard Act, fixing the value of the dollar to gold.
April 30, 1900: Casey Jones, an American railroad engineer, dies in a train wreck, becoming a folk hero.
Guglielmo Marconi conducts his first successful radio transmission in the United States on December 12, 1901, in Massachusetts, marking a significant advancement in wireless communication.
Biochemist Elmer McCollum at the University of Wisconsin identifies and names "Vitamin A" in 1901, a crucial discovery in nutrition and health.
Willis Haviland Carrier designs the first air conditioning system in 1902 in Buffalo, New York, revolutionizing indoor comfort and various industries.
July 23, 1903: The Ford Motor Company is founded in Detroit, Michigan.
December 17, 1903: The Wright brothers achieve the first powered flight near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
Dr. Alexis Carrel and Charles Guthrie perform the first successful kidney transplant in 1904 at the University of Chicago, advancing the field of organ transplantation.
March 2, 1897 The Illinois Supreme Court declares the practice of segregated schools unconstitutional, setting a precedent for desegregation in education.
The College Board is founded in 1899 to standardize the college application process and develop the SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) to assess students' readiness for college.
Founding of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP): The NASSP is founded in 1905 to promote and advocate for secondary school principals and education leadership.
Arts, Culture and Literature
On September 24, 1897, Mark Twain publishes "Following the Equator," a travelogue recounting his journey around the world. It includes observations on various cultures and societies.
L. Frank Baum's beloved children's book, "The Wizard of Oz," is adapted into a successful stage musical, premiering in Chicago on June 16, 1902, before touring the United States.
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, also known as the St. Louis World's Fair, takes place from April 30 to December 1, 1904. It showcases art, culture, and innovations from around the world.
June 25, 1906: Upton Sinclair publishes "The Jungle", exposing the harsh conditions of the meatpacking industry in Chicago. The novel leads to significant food safety reforms.
April 26, 1906: A massive earthquake strikes San Francisco, leading to widespread destruction and fires
The Boston Marathon, one of the world's oldest annual marathons, is held for the first time on April 19, 1897. John McDermott becomes the inaugural winner.
The Western Golf Association is established in 1899, with its headquarters in Chicago. It plays a pivotal role in promoting golf in the United States.
The first modern World Series in baseball is played in 1903 between the Boston Red Sox and the Pittsburgh Pirates. Boston wins the series five games to three.
**International Events (July 4, 1896 - July 3, 1908)**
Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom celebrates her Diamond Jubilee in 1897, marking 60 years on the throne as one of the longest-reigning monarchs in British history.
Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin's airship, the LZ 4, makes its first flight in the United States on October 19, 1899, in St. Louis, Missouri, showcasing the potential of air travel.
June 5, 1900: The United Kingdom proclaims a protectorate over Tonga in the Pacific.
December 25, 1900: The U.S. Secretary of State John Hay announces the "Open Door Policy" to promote equal trade access to China.
May 31, 1902: The Treaty of Vereeniging ends the Second Anglo-Boer War between Britain and the Boer republics in South Africa.
September 20, 1904: Orville and Wilbur Wright make their first flight in Europe, near Le Mans, France.
July 30, 1907: The first official Boy Scout camp opens on Brownsea Island in England.
June 30, 1908: A massive explosion, likely caused by a meteoroid or comet, occurs near the Tunguska River in Siberia.