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Barbaray Wars

1801-1805 / 1815-1816

The Barbary Wars (also known as the Barbary Coast Wars) were a series of conflicts between the United States and the North African Barbary states of Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. These wars arose from the Barbary pirates' practice of capturing American merchant vessels and demanding tribute for safe passage in the Mediterranean Sea, posing a threat to American trade and maritime interests.

The First Barbary War occurred from 1801 to 1805, starting with the capture of the American ship USS Philadelphia by Tripolitan pirates in 1803. In response, the United States, led by President Thomas Jefferson, dispatched a naval squadron commanded by Commodore Edward Preble. The conflict saw notable events like the successful blockade of Tripoli's harbor and the daring raid on the captured USS Philadelphia by Lieutenant Stephen Decatur. The war culminated in the signing of the Treaty of Tripoli in 1805, which secured the release of American prisoners and established a temporary peace.

The Second Barbary War, also known as the Algerine War, took place in 1815. After the War of 1812, the Barbary states resumed their attacks on American shipping. Commodore Stephen Decatur returned to the region with a powerful fleet and effectively pressured Algiers into ceasing its piracy activities. The Second Barbary War ended with the signing of treaties with Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, effectively securing a lasting peace and eliminating the tribute payments that had previously been extorted from the United States. These conflicts not only safeguarded American maritime interests in the Mediterranean but also contributed to the nation's growing reputation on the international stage as a capable naval power.

The Barbary Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and the North African Barbary States of Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Barbary States’ practice of piracy and the capturing of American ships and sailors primarily drove these conflicts. Here are the major battles and events during the Barbary Wars:

First Barbary War (1801-1805)

Attack on the USS Philadelphia (1803) 

During a mission to blockade the port of Tripoli, the USS Philadelphia ran aground and was captured by Tripolitan forces. The crew was taken captive.

Battle of Derna** (April-May 1805) 

A joint American and mercenary force captured the city of Derna, Tripoli, in a ground assault, which helped secure the release of captured American sailors.

Second Barbary War (1815)

Capture of the Mashouda (1815)

In June 1815, the USS Hornet captured the Algerian ship Mashouda, leading to negotiations between the United States and Algiers.

Bombardment of Algiers (August 1816)

After negotiations failed to secure the release of American captives, the U.S. Navy, under the command of Stephen Decatur, bombarded Algiers, leading to the release of prisoners and the signing of treaties with Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.

·  "The Pirate Coast: Thomas Jefferson, the First Marines, and the Secret Mission of 1805" by Richard Zacks

·  "To the Shores of Tripoli: The Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines" by A. B. C. Whipple

·  "Jefferson's War: America's First War on Terror 1801-1805" by Joseph Wheelan

·  "The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World" by Frank Lambert

·  "The Shores of Tripoli: Lieutenant Putnam and the Barbary Pirates" by James L. Haley

·  "Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy" by Ian W. Toll

·  "Victory in Tripoli: How America's War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a Nation" by Joshua E. London

·  "Thomas Jefferson and the Tripoli Pirates: The Forgotten War That Changed American History" by Brian Kilmeade and Don Yaeger

·  "The United States and the Barbary Pirates: An Historical Sketch" by Henry Edwin Knoche

·  "Empires of the Sea: The Final Battle for the Mediterranean, 1521-1580" by Roger Crowley

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