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Bosnian War and Creation War 1992 - 1995

The Bosnian War and Croatian War of the early 1990s were intertwined conflicts that marked the dissolution of Yugoslavia. The Bosnian War spanned from 1992 to 1995, while the Croatian War occurred from 1991 to 1995. These wars were driven by ethnic and national tensions among various groups within the former Yugoslavia, leading to violence and humanitarian crises.

Key events in the Croatian War include the declaration of independence by Croatia in 1991, which was met with resistance from Serbian militias. This escalated into full-scale conflict, marked by atrocities committed by various sides. In 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina also declared independence, leading to the Bosnian War. Both conflicts saw ethnic cleansing, mass displacement, and heavy casualties.

Significant figures involved include Slobodan Milošević, the president of Serbia, who pursued nationalist policies that fueled the conflicts, and Franjo Tuđman, the first president of Croatia, who sought to establish Croatian sovereignty. International intervention and peace efforts led to the Dayton Accords in 1995, which ended the Bosnian War, while the Croatian War concluded around the same time with the Croatian military retaking certain territories. These wars left deep scars on the region, prompting questions about the international community's role in preventing and resolving conflicts, and fostering discussions about national identities and reconciliation in the post-conflict Balkans.

The timeline of events during the Bosnian War (1992-1995) and the Croatian War (1991-1995):

Croatian War (1991-1995):

1991: Political tensions between Serbs and Croats escalated, leading to the outbreak of armed conflict in various regions of Croatia.

Battle of Vukovar (August 25 - November 18, 1991): 

Croatian forces defended the city of Vukovar from a siege by Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Serbian paramilitary forces, resulting in heavy casualties and extensive destruction.

1992-1995: Fighting continued in different areas of Croatia, with a ceasefire and the eventual signing of the Dayton Accords bringing the conflict to a close in 1995.

Bosnian War (1992-1995):

1992: Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia, leading to clashes between Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs.

Siege of Sarajevo (April 5, 1992 - February 29, 1996): 

Bosnian Serb forces laid siege to the capital city of Sarajevo, resulting in a long and brutal campaign of shelling and sniping.

Srebrenica Massacre (July 11-22, 1995): 

Bosnian Serb forces captured the UN-designated "safe area" of Srebrenica and carried out a mass killing of Bosniak men and boys, constituting a war crime and genocide.

Dayton Accords (November 21, 1995): 

Negotiated in Dayton, Ohio, the peace agreement ended the Bosnian War, divided the country into two entities (the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska), and established a NATO-led stabilization force (SFOR).

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