Gulf War 1990 - 1991
The First United States Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War or Operation Desert Storm, took place from August 2, 1990, to February 28, 1991. The war was a response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, led by Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, which posed a threat to regional stability and global oil supplies. The invasion prompted international condemnation, and a coalition of nations, led by the United States, took military action to liberate Kuwait and deter further aggression.
Key events of the Gulf War include the aerial and ground campaign launched by the coalition forces in January 1991. The war saw the implementation of Operation Desert Shield, which aimed to defend Saudi Arabia from potential Iraqi attacks, followed by Operation Desert Storm, a massive air campaign targeting Iraqi military and infrastructure. The ground campaign commenced on February 24, 1991, with coalition forces advancing into Kuwait and Iraq. The liberation of Kuwait was swift and successful, resulting in a ceasefire on February 28, 1991.
Significant individuals involved in the Gulf War included U.S. President George H.W. Bush, who coordinated the international response, and General Norman Schwarzkopf, who led the coalition forces as the commander of U.S. Central Command. The Gulf War marked a coalition victory and a demonstration of international cooperation against aggression. However, it also left a legacy of unresolved issues, including ongoing tensions with Iraq, which would lead to future conflicts and challenges in the region.
The timeline of battles and events during the Gulf War (1990-1991):
Invasion of Kuwait (August 2, 1990)
Iraqi forces, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait, leading to global condemnation and the start of the Gulf War.
Operation Desert Shield (August 7, 1990 - January 17, 1991)
The United States and its allies deployed forces to Saudi Arabia to deter further Iraqi aggression and protect the region.
Operation Desert Storm - Gulf War (January 17 - February 28, 1991)
A coalition of international forces, led by the United States, launched a massive air campaign followed by a ground offensive to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation.
Battle of Khafji (January 29 - 31, 1991)
Iraqi forces launched an attack on the Saudi Arabian city of Khafji, resulting in a limited ground battle and a coalition victory.
Ceasefire and Liberation of Kuwait (February 28, 1991)
Following the successful coalition offensive, a ceasefire agreement was reached, leading to the liberation of Kuwait from Iraqi occupation.
"Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War" by Rick Atkinson
"The Generals' War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf" by Michael R. Gordon and Bernard E. Trainor
"Desert Storm: The War in the Persian Gulf" by Time-Life Books
"War in the Gulf, 1990-91: The Iraq-Kuwait Conflict and Its Implications" by Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh
"Sword Point: The First Battle of America's War with Islamic Militantism" by Harold Coyle
"War in the Gulf: Lessons for the Third World" by George H. Quester
"The War in the Gulf: From the Invasion of Kuwait to the Day of Victory and Beyond" by Ross Dunn
"A Hard and Bitter Peace: A Global History of the Cold War" by Edward H. Judge and John W. Langdon
"Crusade and Jihad: The Thousand-Year War between the Muslim World and the Global North" by William R. Polk
"The Gulf War Reader: History, Documents, Opinions" edited by Micah L. Sifry and Christopher Cerf