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Multinational Intervention in Lebanon 1982 - 1984

The Multinational Intervention in Lebanon, spanning from 1982 to 1984, was a collaborative effort by various countries to restore stability to Lebanon during its civil war. The intervention was prompted by the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982, with the goal of expelling the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from southern Lebanon. The United States, France, Italy, and other nations participated in this peacekeeping operation, with the aim of facilitating the withdrawal of Israeli forces, establishing a secure environment, and aiding in the reconstruction of the war-torn country.

Key events in the intervention included the establishment of the Multinational Force (MNF) in Beirut, consisting of U.S. Marines, French paratroopers, and Italian soldiers, among others. Their presence aimed to maintain order, oversee the withdrawal of the PLO, and assist the Lebanese government in asserting control. However, the mission faced challenges, including factional violence and a bombing that targeted the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut in October 1983, killing 241 American servicemen.

Significant individuals involved in the Multinational Intervention included U.S. President Ronald Reagan, French President François Mitterrand, and Italian Prime Minister Bettino Craxi. Despite initial efforts to stabilize the situation, the MNF gradually withdrew from Lebanon due to the deteriorating security situation and limited progress in achieving its objectives. The intervention highlighted the complexities of intervening in complex conflicts and the challenges of maintaining stability in a volatile region.

Summary of the events during the Intervention in Lebanon (1982-1984):

1982

Israeli Invasion of Lebanon (June 6 - August 30, 1982)

Israel launched a full-scale invasion of Lebanon in response to attacks by Palestinian groups and aimed to remove the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from southern Lebanon.

Siege of Beirut (June 14 - August 12, 1982)

Israeli forces laid siege to Beirut, leading to heavy shelling and fighting in the city between Israeli forces and PLO fighters.

Sabra and Shatila Massacre (September 16 - 18, 1982)

Lebanese Christian militiamen entered the Palestinian refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila in Beirut and committed mass killings of Palestinian civilians.

1983

Beirut Barracks Bombings (October 23, 1983)

A suicide truck bomb attack on the US Marine barracks in Beirut killed 241 American servicemen, leading to the withdrawal of American forces from Lebanon.

1984

Withdrawal of Multinational Forces (February 26, 1984)

The United States withdrew its remaining troops from Lebanon, effectively ending its involvement in the intervention.

 

End of the Israeli Occupation (June 6, 1984)

Israel withdrew its forces from most of Lebanon, keeping a smaller presence in a "security zone" along the border.

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