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Spanish American War  1898 - 1902

The Spanish-American War of 1898 marked a significant turning point in global geopolitics and the emergence of the United States as a major world power. The conflict was triggered by simmering tensions between Spain and the United States over Cuba's struggle for independence. The war officially began on April 25, 1898, and notable events included the explosion of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor in February, which escalated U.S. calls for intervention. Key naval engagements included Commodore George Dewey's resounding victory in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, leading to the capture of the Philippines.

As a result of the Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898, Spain ceded territories including Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. However, this transfer of colonial control sparked a new conflict, the Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902), as Filipino nationalists, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, resisted American colonial rule. The insurrection witnessed battles such as the Siege of Baler and the Battle of Tirad Pass, with both sides experiencing significant casualties. The insurrection was eventually quelled by American military force, and the Philippines remained under U.S. control until gaining independence in 1946.

Significant leaders involved in these conflicts included Commodore George Dewey, who achieved fame for his naval victory in Manila Bay, and Emilio Aguinaldo, who led the Filipino resistance against American colonization. The Spanish-American War and the subsequent Philippine Insurrection had far-reaching implications, not only for the United States' growing global influence but also for debates about imperialism, self-determination, and the ethics of intervention in the affairs of other nations.

A list of major battles during the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection:

 

Spanish-American War (1898)

 

Battle of Manila Bay (May 1, 1898)

American Commodore George Dewey's fleet defeated the Spanish Pacific Squadron in the Philippines, securing naval control and setting the stage for further operations.

 

Battle of Santiago de Cuba (July 3, 1898)

American naval forces, including Admiral William T. Sampson's fleet, decisively defeated the Spanish fleet, effectively ending Spanish naval power in the Caribbean.

 

Battle of San Juan Hill (July 1, 1898)

American forces, including the Rough Riders led by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, captured key positions near Santiago, Cuba, in a critical land battle.

 

Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902)

 

Battle of Manila (February 4-5, 1899)

American forces, initially victorious against the Spanish in 1898, now faced Filipino insurgents. The battle for control of Manila marked the beginning of the Philippine-American War.

 

Battle of Santa Cruz (April 9, 1899)

American forces clashed with Filipino insurgents near Manila, resulting in significant casualties on both sides.

 

Battle of Tirad Pass (December 2-3, 1899)

Filipino General Gregorio del Pilar's forces fought valiantly against overwhelming American forces, allowing Emilio Aguinaldo to escape.

 

Battle of Bud Dajo (March 5-7, 1906)

A clash between American forces and Moro rebels on Jolo Island in the Philippines, resulting in significant casualties and raising questions about U.S. colonial policy.

 

Battle of Balangiga (September 28, 1901)

Filipino insurgents launched a surprise attack on American soldiers in Balangiga, Samar, resulting in heavy American casualties and reprisals against Filipino civilians.

 

**Battle of Bud Bagsak** (June 11-15, 1913)

A decisive battle in which American forces fought against Moro rebels on Bud Dajo, leading to the death of Sultan Jamalul Kiram II and effectively ending the Philippine Insurrection.

Additonal Resources: 

Books:

  1. "The War Lovers: Roosevelt, Lodge, Hearst, and the Rush to Empire, 1898" by Evan Thomas

  2. "The Splendid Little War: The Dramatic Story of the Spanish-American War" by Frank Freidel

  3. "The Rough Riders" by Theodore Roosevelt

  4. "Empire by Default: The Spanish-American War and the Dawn of the American Century" by Ivan Musicant

  5. "The Spanish-American War: A Documentary History with Commentaries" edited by David Trask

  6. "Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American War and Its Aftermath" by James C. Bradford

  7. "The Philippines: A Singular and a Plural Place" by David Joel Steinberg (Offers insight into the Philippine Insurrection and its aftermath.)

  8. "In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines" by Stanley Karnow

  9. "Inside the Philippine Revolution" by William Chapman

  10. "The Philippine War, 1899-1902" by Brian McAllister Linn

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