Wars Against First Nation Peoples
In the aftermath of the American Revolution, the United States was engaged in a series of conflicts with various indigenous First Nation Peoples. One prominent conflict during this period was the Northwest Indian War (1785-1795), which occurred in the Ohio River Valley and the Great Lakes region. It involved clashes between American settlers and a coalition of Native American tribes, including the Shawnee, Miami, and Delaware. The Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 resulted in a decisive American victory, leading to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. This treaty forced several indigenous nations to cede vast territories in modern-day Ohio and Indiana to the United States.
Another significant conflict was the Creek War (1813-1814), which took place in the southeastern part of the United States. The Creek Nation, divided between factions supporting or opposing cooperation with European settlers, became embroiled in a civil war. This internal strife was exacerbated by tensions between the Creek and the United States. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814 marked a turning point, with General Andrew Jackson leading U.S. forces to a decisive victory. The resulting Treaty of Fort Jackson forced the Creek to cede millions of acres of land to the United States, contributing to the dispossession of indigenous peoples from their ancestral territories.
Prominent figures involved in these conflicts included General Josiah Harmar, General Arthur St. Clair, and General Anthony Wayne in the Northwest Indian War, as well as General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War. These wars against First Nations peoples in the late 18th and early 19th centuries demonstrated the ongoing struggle for control over land and resources, resulting in the displacement of indigenous communities and the erosion of their sovereignty.
Cherokee-American Wars (1776-1795):
As part of the Revolutionary War, conflicts between Cherokee tribes and American settlers intensified, leading to a series of clashes and treaties that resulted in the cession of Cherokee lands.
1785-1795: Northwest Indian War
Battle of the Wabash - St. Clair's Defeat (November 4, 1791):
A major defeat for the United States Army under General Arthur St. Clair against a confederation of Native American tribes, including the Miami and Shawnee, resulting in heavy casualties.
Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794):
US forces led by General Anthony Wayne decisively defeated a coalition of Native American tribes led by Blue Jacket, leading to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.
1798-1799: Northwest Territory Conflicts
Battle of Maumee Rapids (August 20, 1794):
A naval engagement between the US Navy and Native American forces on the Great Lakes during the Northwest Indian War.
**Battle of Thames - or Moraviantown (October 5, 1794):
US and British forces, along with Native American allies, clashed in present-day Ontario, Canada, resulting in the defeat of Native American forces.