War Against First Nation Peoples
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act, marked a change in federal policy by promoting tribal self-governance and the preservation of indigenous cultures. However, not all tribes embraced these changes. The Menominee Termination Act of 1954, for instance, sought to end federal recognition of the Menominee tribe in Wisconsin, which led to social and economic struggles. The American Indian Movement (AIM), founded in 1968, emerged as a prominent advocacy group that highlighted ongoing injustices faced by native communities. AIM's occupation of the Wounded Knee site in 1973 drew attention to issues like land rights and political autonomy.
Throughout the 20th century, figures like Richard Nixon, whose administration supported self-determination policies, and Clyde Bellecourt, a co-founder of AIM, played significant roles. AIM's occupation of Alcatraz Island in 1969 and the siege at Wounded Knee in 1973 were key events that brought attention to indigenous rights. These conflicts and events reflected the enduring struggle for native sovereignty, cultural preservation, and land rights, as well as the efforts of native leaders and organizations to bring attention to their cause.